Nearly everyone must have health insurance under the Affordable Care Act without having to pay a fee at tax time. However, you can't just go out and buy health insurance whenever you want.
Unless you qualify for a special exception, you must get health insurance during open enrollment.
Companies usually have their open enrollment in the fall or winter; check with your employer for the exact dates.
For plans through the Affordable Care Act, also called Obamacare, open enrollment starts in November.
Open enrollment is Nov. 1-Jan. 31
Open enrollment for plans through the Affordable Care Act starts Nov. 1 and goes through Jan. 31, 2017. In order to get coverage to start on Jan. 1, you'll need to select a plan by Dec. 15 unless you are in Massachusetts or Rhode Island, which gives you until Dec. 23.
You can enroll in Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) any time of the year if you are eligible for those programs. See if you are eligible in Medicaid or CHIP.
Who needs to sign up for health insurance
You will need to buy individual/family health insurance without paying a fee if:
- You don't have coverage through your employer or your spouse's employer.
- You are older than 26 and can't be on our parents' health insurance anymore.
If you're a veteran or you're eligible for Medicare or Medicaid, you do not need to sign up.
Note: You also are not required to have health insurance -- and won't have to pay a fee -- if you don't file taxes because your income is below the tax filing threshold or that coverage would cost more than 8% of your household income.
What are your health insurance options?
Depending on your situation, you have the following options:
Renew your current policy
During open enrollment, you can renew your current health insurance. You may not have to do anything if you want to keep what you have. But your current plan may be changing. Watch the mail for a letter about any changes your plan intends to make in 2017.
If the changes aren't acceptable to you (your doctor is leaving the network, for example, or your drugs won't be part of its list of covered medications), you will want to look for a plan that better suits your needs. If you need to switch, open enrollment is the time.
Buy an individual policy through a marketplace or directly from an insurance provider
You may want to sign up on the marketplace exchange in your state if you qualify for tax subsidies to help you pay your premiums. Qualifying depends on your family size and income. Otherwise, if you want, you can sign up for health insurance directly through a plan during open enrollment.
Make changes to your employer-based group health insurance
If you get your health insurance through your employer, the open enrollment period for the government-run marketplaces and Affordable Care Act plans won't affect you. You need to sign up for coverage during your employer's open enrollment period. Some employers will automatically renew the plan you had this year. Others require that you sign up each year during its open enrollment. Ask your employer its rules so you know what you have to do. The same advice to watch for changes applies.
Change your Medicare plan
If you are enrolled in Medicare and want to make a change in your plan – such as switching to Medicare Advantage (Part C) or adding prescription drug coverage (Part D) – you must sign up during its fall open enrollment period. Medicare open enrollment is Oct. 15 to Dec. 7, and coverage starts Jan. 1. Again, open enrollment for the government-run marketplaces would not affect you.
How to select a health plan
If you're buying a health plan through the Affordable Care Act, you have a choice of four metal levels:
The amount of money that you must pay out of pocket when you use health services goes down with the metal level. Bronze plans will have the highest deductibles and copays while platinum will have the lowest. However, the premiums for the bronze plans will be the lowest and premiums will be the highest for platinum.
When deciding what's the best plan for you, think about your health and your family's health -- and financial situation.
Do you see a doctor or other health-care provider regularly to help you manage a chronic disease or condition? Do you take costly medications? You may want a health plan that has lower copays and deductibles if you are a frequent user of services.
If you are young and healthy and use few medical services, you may want a plan that costs less in premiums. Of course, you never know what can happen. And you can't change your plan outside open enrollment just because something happened to you.
Look at the out-of-pocket-maximums for the plans you're considering. Could you afford that amount should the unexpected happen? Check out the doctors and hospitals in the plan's network. Are the doctors and hospitals you prefer part of it? Some plans will only pay for those providers in their networks. Some plans will pay if you go to providers who are out-of-network, but at a lower rate than for in-network.
The plans are required to provide a list of drugs that they cover. The list is available on their websites. Check it out if you take medications to manage any conditions. See what you would pay in the different plans you are thinking of enrolling in. It may help you to compare if you make a spreadsheet.
What the health plan will cover
Under the Affordable Care Act, all plans that you sign up for during open enrollment must provide at least 10 essential benefits:
- Outpatient care and chronic disease management (doctors' offices and clinics)
- Emergency room care
- Care if you go to a hospital and are admitted or require surgery
- Care if you are pregnant and after your child is born
- Services for mental health and substance abuse (this includes counseling and psychotherapy)
- Medications (though it may be limited and only certain medications)
- Rehab services and devices to help with injuries, disabilities and chronic conditions or to recover your physical and mental skills
- Blood, urine and other lab tests
- Preventive and wellness care
- And dental and vision care for children (but not adults)
Insurance plans can offer benefits in addition to the required benefits. The best way to find out what benefits each plan covers is to go to its website and compare.
What if you don't want health insurance?
If you don't sign up for health insurance during the open enrollment period, you may have to wait an entire year to sign up. If you don't have health insurance, you could be subject to penalties at tax time.
The fee is 2.5% of your yearly household income or $695 per person ($347.50 per child under 18). You'll have to pay whichever number is higher. An uninsured family of four (husband, wife and two children) would pay at least a fee of more than $2,000 at tax time.
The penalties would be subtracted from any income tax refund you were due.
Special enrollment for health insurance
You need to sign up for health insurance during open enrollment, but there are a limited number of ways that you can get health care during other parts of the year. If you don't enroll during open enrollment, you are eligible for a special exception enrollment period if:
- You get married
- You get divorced and were getting your health insurance through your spouse's employer
- You have a baby or adopt a baby or place a child for adoption or foster care
- Your spouse or partner dies and that leaves you without health insurance
- Your spouse or partner loses a job and you had coverage through his or her work
- You lose your job and had coverage through your work
- Your hours are cut and you are no longer a full-time employee eligible for workplace coverage
- You are in an HMO and move outside its coverage area
- You leave jail or gain citizenship
If you voluntarily drop your coverage, you won't qualify for a special enrollment period. The only time you can re-enroll is during open enrollment.
If you apply for a special exception and are rejected, you can appeal the decision to the Health Insurance Marketplace.
Hardships and health insurance
You can ignore the open enrollment period if you suffered a hardship. Hardships that make it unnecessary to enroll in a health insurance plan include:
- Being the victim of domestic violence
- Suffering from a natural or human-caused disaster that damages your home such as a fire or flood
- Suffering the death of a close family member or have unexpected expenses related to caring for an elderly or disabled family member
- Being evicted from your home
- Declaring bankruptcy
- Being in the U.S. illegally
- Being incarcerated
If you experience system errors when signing up, you may be able to work with a caseworker to resolve your issues and have the deadlines extended.
You also may not be required to buy health insurance if you apply for Medicaid and are rejected because your state did not expand eligibility. Also, members of recognized religious sects that have religious objections to medical insurance may be excused.
If you live abroad for most of the year (330 days), you are not required to buy insurance during open enrollment either.
Where can you learn more?
HealthCare.gov has a list of important marketplace deadlines and information about eligibility. You also can sign up to get emails about new health insurance options and benefits.